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An Cheapach
ginideach: na Ceapaí
ainm deimhnithe
(Gaeilge)
Cappagh White
(Béarla)
Ainmneacha eile
Cappawhite
ainm áitiúil
(Béarla)
Gluais
ceapach
(freisin: ceapaigh)
plot of land, tillage plot
Nóta mínithe
  • Gaeilge

    Tá sráidbhaile na Ceapaí (An Cheapach san ainmneach) suite i mbaile fearainn den ainm céanna i gCo. Thiobraid Árann. Tá cuid den bhaile fearainn i bparóiste dlí Thuama i mbarúntacht Choill na Manach Uachtarach agus tá an chuid eile de i bparóiste dlí Dhún Eochaille, barúntacht Choill na Manach Íochtarach. Ainm toghroinne is ea An Cheapach chomh maith. Is í An Cheapach foirm oifigiúil Ghaeilge an tsráidbhaile, an bhaile fearainn agus na toghroinne, de réir An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Contae Thiobraid Árann) 2005 a tháinig i ngníomh ar 21 Nollaig 2005 faoi Acht na dTeangacha Oifigiúla 2003. Roimhe sin sa bhliain 1975, tugadh aitheantas dleathach do An Cheapach mar ‘iontamhail i nGaeilge’ phostbhaile Cappagh White de réir ordaithe faoin Acht Logainmneacha (Foirmeacha Gaeilge), 1973 ar cuireadh Acht na dTeangacha Oifigiúla 2003 in ionad ó shin. Is i gcáipéisí Stáit a scríobhadh i dtosach an seachtú haois déag a fhaightear na samplaí is sine den logainm atá cnuasaithe ag an mBrainse Logainmneacha, ar nós Cappagh sa bhliain 1607 (Calendar Irish Patent Rolls of James I), nuair a bhí muintir Uí Dhuibhir i seilbh na háite. Tá tagairt shuimiúil chomh maith in Civil Survey (Co. Tipperary), bliain 1654 do Keilmorenacappagh, ar traslitriú Béarla é ón nGaeilge Coill Mhór na Ceapchana Ceapaí .i. sampla follasach den alt an roimh Ceapach i bhfoirm ghinidigh an logainm. Bhreac taighdeoirí topografacha na Suirbhéireachta Ordanáis na leaganacha Gaeilge Ceapach agus Ceapain in Ainmleabhair Pharóiste Thuama agus Dhún Eochaille faoi seach sa bhliain 1840. Tá sampla eile den fhoirceann -in in ionad an fhoircinn bhunaidh -ach (Ceapach) sa bharántas a chum Diarmaid Ó Riain ón mBáinseach i gCo. Thiobraid Árann sa bhliain 1819, mar ar luaigh sé 'sa Cheapain Mhór'. Is dócha gurbh í An Cheapach Mhór i gCo. Luimnigh an áit a bhí i gceist ag an bhfile (paróiste Dhúin, barúntacht Ó Cuanach). D’úsáidtí an logainm gan aon cháilitheoir i nGaeilge ar aon chaoi.
    Ní raibh baint ar bith ag an sloinne White, atá caomhnaithe in Cappagh White, leis an logainm roimh thús an ochtú haois déag; tá tagairt, cuir i gcás, do ‘John White of Cappagh’ sa bhliain 1703 in Abstracts of … the Forfeited Estates and Interests in Ireland. Ba chuid den logainm Béarla an sloinne sa sampla seo a leanas áfach, Capogh White (bliain 1758). Tá litriú comónta Béarla an lae inniu, Cappawhite – is é Cappagh White an litriú oifigiúil – ar taifead in Ainmleabhar na Suirbhéireachta Ordanáis, bliain 1840.

    Léiríonn an fhianaise atá curtha os ár gcomhair go dtí seo nár chuid den logainm Gaeilge an sloinne de Faoite fad a bhí an Ghaeilge ina teanga dhúchais i gCo. Thiobraid Árann. Níor tháinig an fhoirm shaorga Ceapach na bhFaoiteach chun cinn go dtí tosach an fichiú haois i bhfoilseacháin éagsúla a raibh baint acu le gluaiseacht athbheochan na Gaeilge. Tugadh le fios, cuir i gcás, gurbh é Ceapach na bhFaoiteach an t-ainm Gaeilge a bhí ar Cappawhite i ngasaitéar tábhachtach de logainmneacha Éireannacha dar teideal, Post-Sheanchas ina bhfuil cúigí, dúithchí, conntaethe agus bailte puist na hÉireann, gasaitéar a thiomsaigh Seosamh Laoide agus a cuireadh i gcló den chéad uair sa bhliain 1905. Tugadh aitheantas do Ceapach na bhFaoiteach ina dhiaidh sin i ngasaitéir dhátheangacha eile, mar Logainmneacha .i. [A] Dictionary of Irish Placenames le Risteard Ó Foghludha (1935 bliain a foilsithe) agus in eagráin éagsúla de Eolaí an Phoist / [Irish] Post Office Guide.

    ‘Tillage plot’ is brí do ceapach de ghnáth. Tá an focal fréamhaithe ó ceap, a chiallaíonn bun crainn. Faightear Ceapóg (leis an iarmhír dhíspeagtha bhunaidh -óg) i logainmneacha freisin. Tá naoi bhaile fearainn déag eile i gCo. Thiobraid Árann a thosaíonn le Ceapach (gan an t-alt An a chur san áireamh), nó bailte fearainn ar a dtugtar Ceapach gan aon cháilitheoir. Seo é an cuntas grinn a thug P. W. Joyce ar dháileamh ceapach i logainmneacha sa chéad imleabhar de Irish Names of Places: ‘It does not occur [in the formation of placenames] so frequently in Ulster as in other provinces’.

  • English

    The village of Cappagh White is located within the townland of Cappagh in Co. Tipperary. The townland is partly located in the civil parish of Toem within the barony of Kilnamanagh Upper and partly in the civil parish of Donohill, barony of Kilnamanagh Lower. The same placename, Cappagh, is also the name of an electoral division. An Cheapach is the official Irish form of village, townland and electoral division, in accordance with the Placenames (Co. Tipperary) Order 2005 which came into operation on 21 December 2005 under the Official Languages Act 2003. Prior to that An Cheapach was given legal status in 1975 as the Irish name of Cappagh White post-town by order under the Place-Names (Irish forms) Act of 1973 which has since been superseded by the Official Languages Act of 2003.

    According to the archive of the Placenames Branch, the earliest examples of the placename are found in State documents written at the beginning of the seventeenth century, such as Cappagh in the year 1607 (Calendar Irish Patent Rolls of James I) when the denomination was in possession of the O Dwyers. There is also an interesting reference in the Civil Survey (Co. Tipperary) of 1654 to Keilmorenacappagh, which is an English transliteration of Irish Coill Mhór na Ceapcha or na Ceapaí .i.e. a clear example of the article an preceding Ceapach in the genitive form of the placename. Ceapach and Ceapain were recorded as Irish versions of the placename by the Ordnance Survey Topographical researchers in 1840, in the Parish Namebooks of Toem and Donohill respectively. A further example of the ending -in replacing original -ach (Ceapach) is found in the 'barántas' (warrant) composed by Diarmaid Ó Riain from Bansha, Co. Tipperary in 1819 in which he referred to 'sa Cheapain Mhór'. This is probably Cappaghmore in Co. Limerick (parish of Doon, barony of Coonagh). In any case, the placename was used without further qualification in Irish.

    The surname White, which occurs in Cappagh White, was not specifically associated with the placename prior to the early eighteenth century; there is a reference, for instance, to ‘John White of Cappagh’ dated 1703 in Abstracts of … the Forfeited Estates and Interests in Ireland. The surname was incorporated in the following English example of the placename, Capogh White (dated 1758) and the now commonly used English spelling Cappawhite – the official spelling is Cappagh White – was recorded in the Ordnance Survey Namebook of 1840.

    The evidence as set out heretofore shows that the surname White did not form part of the placename in Irish while that language continued in use as a vernacular in Co. Tipperary. Ceapach na bhFaoiteach, which is an artificial formation, came to the fore at the beginning of the twentieth century in various publications associated with the Irish revival movement. For instance, the Irish name for Cappawhite was said to be Ceapach na bhFaoiteach, in an influential bilingual gazetteer of Irish Placenames entitled, Post-Sheanchas ina bhfuil cúigí, dúithchí, conntaethe agus bailte puist na hÉireann, compiled by Seosamh Laoide and first published in 1905. Ceapach na bhFaoiteach was subsequently included in other bilingual Gazetteers, such as Logainmneacha .i. [A] Dictionary of Irish Placenames by Risteard Ó Foghludha (published in 1935) and also in various editions of Eolaí an Phoist / [Irish] Post Office Guide.

    Ceapach generally means a tillage plot. It is a derivative of ceap, meaning a tree-stump. Ceapóg (with original diminutive suffix -óg) is also found in placenames. There are a further nineteen townlands in Co. Tipperary in which ceapach occurs as initial word or without qualification (excluding the initial article An). P. W. Joyce in the first volume of Irish Names of Places perceptively noted that ceapach ‘does not occur [in the formation of placenames] so frequently in Ulster as in other provinces’.

Eangach Náisiúnta

R 89 48

R 887 478

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