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Sráid Líosain Uachtarach Á lódáil...
ginideach: Shráid Líosain Uachtarach
(Gaeilge)
Leeson Street Upper Á lódáil...
(Béarla)
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  • Gaeilge
    1. An t-ainm Leeson Street agus an fhoirm oifigiúil Ghaeilge Sráid Líosain:
    2. Ainmníodh an tsráid as Joseph Leeson, dár tugadh an teideal Iarla Bhaile an Mhuilinn sa bhliain 1763, “who in 1735 leased part of his garden near S. Stephen’s Green... In 1756 the south side of S. Stephen’s-green ... was called Leeson’s-walk” (McCready, Dublin Streetnames Dated and Explained, lch.57). Sa bhliain 1765 atá an chéad tagairt do Leeson’s-street (loc. cit., ag tagairt do léarscáil a thug Rocque amach an bhliain chéanna, Plan of the city and suburbs of Dublin). Tháinig muintir an Leeson seo ó Shasana go hÉirinn tuairim is 1680; bhí grúdlann acu a shaothraigh fortún mór dóibh agus chruinníodar an-chuid gabháltais timpeall ar Shráid Dhásain an lae inniu (MacLysaght, Supplement to Irish Families, lch.105).

    Is é Sráid Líosain ainm oifigiúil Gaeilge na sráide, mar atá le fáil in Sráidainmneacha Bhaile Átha Cliath (Comhairle Chathair Bhaile Átha Cliath, 2004). Mhol an Coimisiún Logainmneacha an fhoirm seo den chéad uair sa bhliain 1958 do Bhord Fáilte; leagan gaelaithe den tsloinne Sasanach Leeson atá ann.

    1. Foirmeacha Gaeilge a moladh thar na blianta agus a mbunús:
    2. Bhí Athbheochan na Gaeilge faoi lántseol ag tús an 20ú haois, agus bhí géarghá ag lucht na Gaeilge le liosta caighdeánaithe de sheoltaí na tíre; sa bhliain 1905 foilsíodh Post-Sheanchas le Seosamh Laoide, a sholáthair foirm Ghaeilge de gach aon bhaile poist in Éirinn. Tagann cuid mhaith de na hainmneacha seo salach ar an taighde cuimsitheach a deineadh níos déanaí ar na bailte poist, áfach.

    Chomh maith le hainmneacha Gaeilge na mbailte poist agus na mbailte fearainn, tá roinnt seoltaí poist uirbeacha le fáil in Post-Sheanchas. Sa Ghaeilge atá ainmneacha na mbailte fearainn agus na sráidbhailte fréamhaithe den chuid is mó, agus níl sna leaganacha ‘Béarla’ de ghnáth ach traslitriú ar an mbunainm Gaeilge (e.g., Ballyglass 2.1 Sráid Líosain in Post-Sheanchas (1905, 1922): ‘Cill Mhuire Cairrgín’, ‘Bóthar Chille Muire’: Agus iad ag tabhairt faoi ainm na sráide seo — sráid mhór thábhachtach ainmnithe as úinéir talún agus grúdaire de bhunadh gallda — bheartaigh scoláirí Gaeilge na hAthbheochana ábhairín taighde a dhéanamh ar na seanlogainmneacha Gaeilge a bhí ann roimh theacht mhuintir Leeson; thángadar ar roinnt tagairtí éiginnte do cheantar idir Baile Átha Cliath agus Domhnach Broc i seancháipéisí éagsúla a chuir síos ar theorainneacha theas na cathrach:

    1192 Kilmekergan

    (‘Charter to Dublin citizens from John, Lord of Ireland, A.D. 1192’, Chartularies of St. Mary’s Abbey, Dublin, lch.266)

    1192 Kilmerecaregan

    (‘Copy of John’s Charter to the citizens of Dublin’, Archbishop Alen’s Register, lch.21)

    1326-7 Kilmerecaregan

    “Jurors...perambulate the city and declare its boundaries to be as follows: On the eastern side of Dublin and on the south side: the pasture which extends as far as St. Kevin’s gate and so by the way as far as Kilmerecaregan and by the boundary of the land of Dovenachbrok as far as Dodir ...”

    (‘Liber Albus: the White Book of the city of Dublin’, Calendar of Ancient Records of Dublin I, lch.157)

    1395c Kilmerecarigan

    (‘Of the metes and bounds by new inquisition’, Archbishop Alen’s Register, lch.231)

    1488 Kylmagergan

    “...and so about the greene and over the ford of Danabrooke, and left the towne and the church on the lyft hand and soe forth through the hy way till they came to Kylmagergan by west Danabrooke and by the hy way is side, and so forth the streyght way till thei come to St. Kevynes gate...”

    (‘Record of the riding of the franchises of Dublin, 1488’, Calendar of Ancient Records of Dublin, I, lch.493)

    1541 Kylmacargyn

    “Within the city liberties, 10 acr. ar. called Kylmacargyn near Donabroke, worth 10.s.”

    (Extents of Irish Monastic Possessions, 1540–41, lch.88)

    1578 Kilmacargin

    “Grant (under queen’s letter, 16 Nov., xviii.) to George Bowrchier alias Bowrgchier, esq.; of land by Donabroke, co. Dublin, called Kilmacargin”

    (Fiants (Elizabeth) 3228)

    1603 Kilmakeregan

    “...by the highe waye syde leading to Dublin till they came to the furthest mear of the land of Donabrooke in the west side and then turned northward to a meadowe; half whereof is of the land of Donabrooke and passed throughe the myddest of that meddowe north-east to the east-south-east corner of a parcell of land called Kilmakeregan nexte adjoyninge to the high waie leading from Donabrooke to Dublin; and then they turned bake west-north-west about that land of Kilmakeregan leaving it upon the right hand betwixt them and the said high way and rode out into the high way aforesaid at a shard upon the west corner of the said Kilmakeregan and rode alongst that high way to St. Stephin’s green, and took the south side of the green.”

    (‘Record of the Riding of the Franchises of the City of Dublin, A.D. 1603’, Calendar of Ancient Records of Dublin, I, lch.192)

    1669 Kilmakargan alias Kil McCargan

    (Lodge’s Record of the Rolls, I, lch.308)

    Ní féidir aon ní a rá go cinnte faoi shuíomh na háite seo, de réir na dtagairtí seo thuas, ach go bhfuil cuid den cheantar mór idir Faiche Stiabhna agus Domhnach Broc i gceist; thairis sin, tá an bunainm Gaeilge féin thar a bheith doiléir.

    Mar sin féin, díríodh ar na solaoidí luatha ‘Kilmerecaregan’ agus ‘Kilmerecarigan’ agus tuairimíodh ‘Cill Mhuire Cairrgín’ mar bhunleagan Gaeilge; baisteadh an t-ainm seo ar an bpostoifig ar Shráid Líosain Uachtarach, .i. an chuid den tsráid is sia ó lár na cathrach. Baisteadh ‘Bóthar Chille Muire’ ar Shráid Líosain Íochtarach, .i. ‘an bóthar a ghabhann go dtí Cill Mhuire’.

    2.2 Postal Directory: Saorstát Éireann (1923-1937): ‘Sráid Chille Muire’ In Eolaí an Phoist de Shaorstát Éireann, tá an dá fhoirm ‘Sráid Chille Muire, Íochtarach’ agus ‘Sráid Chille Muire, Uachtarach’, agus is léir go bhfuil siad seo bunaithe ar an ainm saorga ‘Bóthar Chille Muire’ a fhreagraíonn do Lower Leeson Street in Post-Sheanchas; is baolach nach bhfuil aon dealramh dá laghad ag ceachtar acu ó thaobh na staire de.

    2.3 Risteárd Ó Foghludha: ‘Sráid Chill Mochargán’, ‘Sráid Choill M(h)ac Cargáin’ Bhí cóip idirdhuillithe den Postal Directory of Saorstát Éireann ag an scoláire Risteárd Ó Foghludha (‘Fiachra Éilgeach’) ina mbreacadh sé nótaí eolais agus é ag cur a ghasaitéar féin i dtoll a chéile, .i. Log-Ainmneacha (1935). Tá an chóip chéanna seo anois i seilbh an Bhrainse Logainmneacha. Chuir Ó Foghludha líne tríd na hainmneacha ‘Sráid Chille Muire, Íochtarach’ agus ‘Sráid Chille Muire, Uachtarach’ mar a bhí i gcló sa leabhar, agus bhreac an t-ainm ‘Sr. Chill Mochargán’ ina n-ionad.

    Díol suntais is ea an tagairt san Dublin Historical Record (1945) do shaothar Uí Fhoghludha i ngort na logainmneacha: “... [St. Stephen’s Green’s] southern boundary is defined by the place-name Kilmerecaregan ... The new Gaelic scholarship in the person of Risteard Ó Foghludha ... gives it as Kilmacargan or Cill Mochargan, an old townland now covered by Leeson St. and Sussex Place”.

    Aithnítear, mar sin, gurbh é Fiachra Éilgeach a chéadchum an fhoirm Ghaeilge ‘Sráid Chill Mochargán’, an leagan a bhí ar na comharthaí bóthair feiceálacha de chuid na 1940í (agus an leagan cruinn stairiúil, dar le cuid mhaith, dá bharr). Buanaíodh an t-ainm seo ar chomharthaí an údaráis áitiúil anuas go dtí 1996, agus maireann roinnt de na comharthaí seo fós.

    Díol spéise is ea gur tháinig athrú intinne ar Ó Foghludha ina dhiaidh sin: chuir sé líne tríd ‘Sr. Chill Mochargán’ agus scríobh ‘Sráid Choill Mhac Cargáin’, chomh maith le nóta (gan tagairt) á rá, “the wood covered the site of the Eye and Ear Hospital, the Canal, Dartmouth Square, & c & c”. (Agus cill athraithe go coill aige, bhraith sé gur cheart dó an t-ainm ‘eaglasta’ Mochargán a athrú go dtí an sloinne/ainm athartha tuata Mac Cargáin; tá an dá ainm seo gan urrús.)

    1. Achoimre
    2. Is féidir an t-eolas thuas a achoimriú mar seo a leanas:

    —Is é Sráid Líosain an t-ainm a moladh ar Leeson Street chomh fada siar le 1958 agus is é atá le fáil in Sráidainmneacha Bhaile Átha Cliath, an liosta oifigiúil a d’fhoilsigh Comhairle Chathair Bhaile Átha Cliath sa bhliain 2004.

    —Idir 1905 agus 1958 moladh foirmeacha éagsúla ar nós ‘Bóthar Chille Muire’, ‘Cill Mhuire Cairrgín’, ‘Sráid Chille Muire’, ‘Sráid Choill Mhac Cargáin’, agus ‘Sráid Chill Mochargán’; is é an ceann deireanach acu seo a bhí ar chomharthaí de chuid an údaráis áitiúil anuas go dtí 1996. Tá cuid de na comharthaí seo le feiscint fós.

    —Níl sna foirmeacha ‘athbheoite’ seo thuas ach iarracht ar stair Ghaelach a chruthú do shráidainm simplí de bhunús gallda. Tarraingíodh ceangail finscéalach idir sráid de chuid an 18ú haois agus seanlogainm marbh nach léir suíomh ná sanasaíocht dó.

  • English
    1. The name Leeson Street and its official Irish form Sráid Líosain:

    The street is named after Joseph Leeson, created Earl of Milltown in 1763, “who in 1735 leased part of his garden near S. Stephen’s Green... In 1756 the south side of S. Stephen’s-green ... was called Leeson’s-walk” (McCready, Dublin Streetnames Dated and Explained, p.57). Leeson’s-street is first attested in 1765 (loc. cit., quoting Rocque’s revised Plan of the city and suburbs of Dublin). This Leeson belonged to an English family who came to Ireland about 1680, made their fortune as brewers, and acquired a great amount of property in and around present-day Dawson Street (MacLysaght, Supplement to Irish Families, p.105).

    The official Irish form of the name, according to Sráidainmneacha Bhaile Átha Cliath / Dublin City Streetnames (Dublin City Council, 2004), is Sráid Líosain. This form was originally recommended by the Placenames Commission to Bord Fáilte in 1958 and contains a gaelicised form of the English surname Leeson.

    1. Irish forms proposed in the past and their provenance:
    2. The Irish language movement reached an unprecedented height at the turn of the twentieth century, creating a need for a standard list of major Irish addresses; 1905 saw the publication of Seosamh Laoide’s Post-Sheanchas, which provided Irish versions of the name of every postal town in the country. However, a large number of the Irish forms recommended therein have been superseded as a result of subsequent research.

    As well as giving the Irish names of postal towns and townlands, Post-Sheanchas also listed a number of urban postal addresses. Whereas the country’s townland and village names are mostly of Irish-language origin and the vast majority of their ‘English’ forms merely transliterations of the original Irish name into English orthography — e.g., Ballyglass 2.1 Leeson Street in Post-Sheanchas (1905, 1922): ‘Cill Mhuire Cairrgín’, ‘Bóthar Chille Muire’:

    Faced with a prominent street named in honour of an landowning brewer of English stock, the Gaelic scholars of the Revival undertook to investigate what Irish names were associated with the district before the time of Leeson; they settled on a number of vague references to an area between Dublin and Donnybrook in old descriptions of the city limits:

    1192 Kilmekergan

    (‘Charter to Dublin citizens from John, Lord of Ireland, A.D. 1192’, Chartularies of St. Mary’s Abbey, Dublin, p.266)

    1192 Kilmerecaregan

    (‘Copy of John’s Charter to the citizens of Dublin’, Archbishop Alen’s Register, p.21)

    1326-7 Kilmerecaregan

    “Jurors...perambulate the city and declare its boundaries to be as follows: On the eastern side of Dublin and on the south side: the pasture which extends as far as St. Kevin’s gate and so by the way as far as Kilmerecaregan and by the boundary of the land of Dovenachbrok as far as Dodir ...”

    (‘Liber Albus: the White Book of the city of Dublin’, Calendar of Ancient Records of Dublin I, p.157)

    1395c Kilmerecarigan

    (‘Of the metes and bounds by new inquisition’, Archbishop Alen’s Register, p.231)

    1488 Kylmagergan

    “...and so about the greene and over the ford of Danabrooke, and left the towne and the church on the lyft hand and soe forth through the hy way till they came to Kylmagergan by west Danabrooke and by the hy way is side, and so forth the streyght way till thei come to St. Kevynes gate...”

    (‘Record of the riding of the franchises of Dublin, 1488’, Calendar of Ancient Records of Dublin, I, p.493)

    1541 Kylmacargyn

    “Within the city liberties, 10 acr. ar. called Kylmacargyn near Donabroke, worth 10.s.”

    (Extents of Irish Monastic Possessions, 1540–41, lch.88)

    1578 Kilmacargin

    “Grant (under queen’s letter, 16 Nov., xviii.) to George Bowrchier alias Bowrgchier, esq.; of land by Donabroke, co. Dublin, called Kilmacargin”

    (Fiants (Elizabeth) 3228)

    1603 Kilmakeregan

    “...by the highe waye syde leading to Dublin till they came to the furthest mear of the land of Donabrooke in the west side and then turned northward to a meadowe; half whereof is of the land of Donabrooke and passed throughe the myddest of that meddowe north-east to the east-south-east corner of a parcell of land called Kilmakeregan nexte adjoyninge to the high waie leading from Donabrooke to Dublin; and then they turned bake west-north-west about that land of Kilmakeregan leaving it upon the right hand betwixt them and the said high way and rode out into the high way aforesaid at a shard upon the west corner of the said Kilmakeregan and rode alongst that high way to St. Stephin’s green, and took the south side of the green.”

    (‘Record of the Riding of the Franchises of the City of Dublin, A.D. 1603’, Calendar of Ancient Records of Dublin, I, p.192)

    1669 Kilmakargan alias Kil McCargan

    (Lodge’s Record of the Rolls, I, 308)

    These descriptions cannot be said to refer to anything more exact than a part of the area between St. Stephen’s Green and Donnybrook; moreover, the original Irish name is obscure.

    Nonetheless, taking the early forms ‘Kilmerecaregan’ and ‘Kilmerecarigan’, a very dubious Irish precursor ‘Cill Mhuire Cairrgín’ was proposed (intended to mean something approaching ‘the church of Our Lady of the little rock’); this name was given to the post office at Leeson Street Upper, the further of the two from the city. Then Leeson Street Lower was renamed ‘Bóthar Chille Muire’, i.e., ‘the road to Cill Mhuire [Cairrgín]’, in Irish. Thus were these two Irish names concocted and applied to the streets in question for the very first time.

    2.2 Postal Directory: Saorstát Éireann (1923-1937): ‘Sráid Chille Muire’

    The Postal Directory of Saorstát Éireann gave the two forms ‘Sráid Chille Muire, Íochtarach’ (Leeson Street Lower) and ‘Sráid Chille Muire, Uachtarach’ (Leeson Street Upper), evidently based only on the abbreviated form invented for Lower Leeson Street in Post-Sheanchas and regrettably lacking even the slightest claim of historical justification.

    2.3 Risteárd Ó Foghludha: ‘Sráid Chill Mochargán’, ‘Sráid Choill M(h)ac Cargáin’

    The Placenames Branch holds an interleaved copy of the Postal Directory of Saorstát Éireann which once belonged to Risteárd Ó Foghludha, an Irish scholar who had a keen interest in toponymy, and who had worked closely with Seosamh Laoide in the preparation of Post-Seanchas; he used this annotated copy of the postal directory in preparing his own gazetteer of Irish placenames, Log-Ainmneacha (1935). The printed names ‘Sráid Chille Muire, Íochtarach’ and ‘Sráid Chille Muire, Uachtarach’ are crossed out and the name ‘Sr. Chill Mochargán’ written in instead.

    In an article on an early Dublin charter in the Dublin Historical Record in 1945 his work in this field gets a salient mention: “... [St. Stephen’s Green’s] southern boundary is defined by the place-name Kilmerecaregan ... The new Gaelic scholarship in the person of Risteard Ó Foghludha ... gives it as Kilmacargan or Cill Mochargan, an old townland now covered by Leeson St. and Sussex Place”.

    Therefore Ó Foghludha is acknowledged as the source of the Irish form ‘Sráid Chill Mochargán’, the version that found its way onto street signs in the 1940s (and hence the proper, historical Irish name of the street, as many people believe). Local authority signage perpetuated this version until 1996, and some signs erected prior to that date have yet to be taken down.

    Interestingly, Ó Foghludha subsequently changed his mind: he crossed out ‘Sr. Chill Mochargán’ and wrote ‘Sráid Choill Mhac Cargáin’, with an unreferenced note saying, “the wood covered the site of the Eye and Ear Hospital, the Canal, Dartmouth Square, & c & c”. (Having changed cill, ‘church’ to coill, ‘wood’, he then felt the need to change the ecclesiastical-sounding Mochargán to the lay patronymic Mac Cargáin, both unattested.)

    1. Summary
    2. The foregoing information can be summarized as follows:

    Sráid Líosain has been the recommended Irish form of Leeson Street since 1958 and is the form found in Sráidainmneacha Bhaile Átha Cliath / Dublin City Streetnames, the official list published by Dublin City Council in 2004.

    —Various forms such as ‘Bóthar Chille Muire’, ‘Cill Mhuire Cairrgín’, ‘Sráid Chille Muire’, ‘Sráid Choill Mhac Cargáin’, and ‘Sráid Chill Mochargán’ were proposed in the period 1905-1958, the last-named version being perpetuated on local authority signage until 1996. Many of these old signs still exist.

    —These aforementioned ‘revived’ Irish forms are merely attempts to fabricate a Gaelic history for a streetname of simple English provenance. They are based on an imagined association of the street with a defunct placename, the location of which can only be identified very inexactly and the linguistic evidence for which is very unclear.

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